TRADE ROUTES AND HIGHWAYS
Old-time Trade Routes and Roads
The region covered by the present district of Mainpuri formed part of the ancient kingdom of the Mauriys and Guptas and of Harsh Vardhana. The old imperial highway which ran from the north-western region of the country of Bengal has existed since the times of the Mauriyas. It traversed the district connecting the Punjab, Delhi,and Agra to Allahabad and places further east up to Calcutta. It enters the district from Agra and after passing through Shikohabad and Sirsaganj passes into the Etawah district. It was the practice of the Hindu Kings in ancient India to provide wells and avenues as well as roofed shelters on the main roads.
Before the introduction of railways in the district it was the mainline of communication . The old imperial highway came to be known from Sher Shah Suri's times as the Badshahi road and it was the percursor of the Grand Trunk road . This road was well maintained having milestones, wells and serais and long avenues of fairly well preserved trees. Another important provincial roads was the section of the Grand Trunk road which ran through the district , dividing a Bhongaon in to two branches, one of which went north-west towards Delhi and the other south-west towards Agra. The former branch passed through Kuraoli and thee latter through Mainpuri town and Shikohabad .The total length of the road in the district was 142.4 K.m. The only other provincial road in the district was the Farrukhabad Etawah road which crossed the Grand Trunk road at Bewar and ran south to Kishni , forming the principal lime of traffic in the eastern portion of the district.
During the reign of Akbar the main roads in the district were the same as they are at present except that they were unmetalled and there were ferries on the rivers instead of bridges as now. During the rainy season the ferries were generally difficult to negotiate Some improvements were effected under the Bangash and Rohilla administrations when some more places were connected with roads.
After the cession of the district to the East India company in 1801,an efforts was made to hold the landowners responsible for the upkeep of the roads passing through their estates, but it did not prove of much help. Then the roads were n sought to be improved by the imposition of a road cess and the formation of a road and ferry fund committee to administer the proceeds. Till 1857, all the land routes were treated as local and no road had been metalled , but thereafter of roads spring up , leading towards every direction.In 1876, the metalled roads consisted of the Mainpuri Etawah , Shikohabad - Etah, Shikohabad Sirsaganj, Bhongaon-Agra , Mainpuri- Karhal and Fatehgarh- Gwalior roads, besides certain third class and village roads.
Many more roads were added in the following three decades but even in 1908, the majority of the roads were poor, many of them being impossible to travel upon during several months of the year. many rivers flowing through the district presented obstacles in the construction of roads . The roads approaching the ferries passed over expanses of drifting sand skirting the river .
The following statement gives the lengths of metalled roads in the district in 1908:
|Road||Length (in Km.)|
|Grand Trunk road - Aligarh, Etah and Kanpur section||60.00|
|Grand Trunk road - Agra , Mainpuri and Bhongaon section||73.60|
|Etawah, Bewar, and Fatehgarh||33.00|
|Shikohabad railway feeder||2.40|
In addition, there were 274 km. unmetalled roads in the district .There was very little development of roads in the first half of the twentieth century. However, planned development of means of communication and the construction of new roads was undertaken after 1947 by the public works department of the State. In 1947,the total length of metalled roads in the district was 375 Km. which rose to 518 km. in 1963.
The roads of the district are now classified as national highways,State highways, district roads, roads in the Jurisdiction of the forest department and the local bodies. The State public works department looks after the national highway on behalf of the Central Government and it also maintains the State highways and the major district roads. The forest department and local bodies maintain roads lying within their jurisdictions. The Agra -Etawah-Fatehpur road is a national highway which runs 41.42 km. in the district.
The following statement gives the names of the various highways, national and State , along with their lengths in the district . The roads are metalled and bridged throughout their lengths:
|Highway||Length in district (in Km.)|
|Grand Trunk road||60.00|
The following statement gives the lengths of the district roads Maintained by the public works department:
|Name of the road||Length in district (in KM.)|
|Kosma railway feeder||5.23|
There are also the following 3 shramdan roads in the district ,measuring about 18 km:
|Name of the road||Length in district (in KM.)|
|Alipur Khera-Kali Nadi||7.00|
The Zila Parishad, Mainpuri , Maintains 42 roads in the district of which 17 are metalled . The total length of the unmetalled roads which connect various villages is 236-.20 km. The following statement gives the lengths of the metalled roads:
|Bareilly-Etawah road extension Kusmara||0.60|
|Bareilly-Etawah road extension Kishni||1.00|
|Great circular road||4.47|
|Little circular road||0.80|
|Gola Bazar Sansarpur||0.41|
|Isan bridge to Diwani||1.17|
|Jait to Diwani||3.77|
The municipal board, Mainpuri maintains
41.44 km. of roads within its limits of which a
length of 33.44 km. is metalled. The
municipal board, Shikohabad has 49.30 km. of roads of which a length of 37.17 km. is metalled.
The municipal board, Mainpuri maintains 41.44 km. of roads within its limits of which a length of 33.44 km. is metalled. The municipal board, Shikohabad has 49.30 km. of roads of which a length of 37.17 km. is metalled.
MEANS OF CONVEYANCE
From the earliest times till the coming of the railway the usual means of transport and travel were palanquins, horses, camels and vehicles drawn by bullocks, buffaloes, horses and camels . The bulk of the heavy goods was moved by means of pack animals but valuable goods were usually in carts and carriages . Horses and ponies were very rarely used for draught purposes during Mughal period and the familiar conveyance of later days, the ekka, appears to have been developed since Akbar's time.people in the village in the village depended largely on bullock carts and on vehicles drawn by horses and camels .Camel carts (which have now disappeared from the roads) were a common sight in olden days. With the construction and improvement of metalled roads, speedy mechanised transport, which has the added advantage of being able to play in almost any kind of weather, also made its appearance and today motor cars, buses tractors, motor -cycles, bicycles, bicycle-rickshaws speed along the roads in the towns and the countryside . As and economical and convenient means of transport the bicycle is very popular both in the rural and urban areas of the district. Cycle-rickshaws are a recent addition to the modes of
public conveyance and
are so popular that they have almost driven
almost driven ekkas and tongas off the roads. However, carts driven by bullocks and
buffaloes are even today the main forms of
conveyance in the rural areas of the district . In the urban areas the bicycle and cycle-rickshaw is a
popular means of conveyance .In
1974-75 , there were 50 tongas,155
rickshaws and 9,000 bicycles in the district
Motor trucks and buses started operating in the district since the thirties of the present century . However, there were only a few motor vehicles in the district before1947. In the following years the prices of buses and trucks declined due to the conclusion of the Second World War (1936 -46) and motor vehicles began to be used on the roads in large numbers. In 1974-75 as many as 88 private passenger buses, 7 mini-buses, 80 trucks, 80 private cars and jeeps,70 taxi-cars and station wagons, 381 motor cycles and scooters, and 127 other motor vehicles operated district.
Bus Service --Road transport was nationalized in the State in 1947 to private such facilities to the raveling public as stoppages at definite wayside places on the prescribed routes, punctuality in the arrival and departure of vehicles, fixed rates of fares and freights and avoidance of overcrowding in buses.
The U.P. Government Roadways was constituted in to the U.P. State Road Transport Corporation in 1972 .The number of nationalized routes and public buses plying from Shikohabad and Mainpuri sub- depots has increased
.The following statement gives the names of the routes in 1974-75 on which the buses of the U.P. Road Transport Corporation, Agra region plied:
|Routes||Mileage(in km.)||Number of trips|
The district is linked by the roadways to the district of Kanpur , Lucknow , Agra ,Etawah, Etah and Farrukhabad. Buses may also be reserved for sight-seeing, excursions and marriage parties.
A railway line of the East India Railway was opened for traffics in the second half of the nineteenth century , traversing the southern corner of the district . It enters the district from Agra at Makhanpur station and then after running 37km. in the district through stations at Shikohabad , Korara Bha dan leaves for Etawah .
A branch line between Shikohabad and Mainpuri was opened for passenger traffic in 1905 , bringing the district headquarters on the railway map of the country . Later the whole line between line Shikohabad and Farrukhabad was completed and opened on January 1,1906 for traffic . It starts from Shikohabad in the south - west and goes to the south east of the district , running through , besides Shikohabad , the station at Araon, Takha , Tindauli, Mainpuri city , Mainpuri Kuchehri, Bhongaon , and Mota in the district.
In November 1951, the railways were nationalized and divided in to zones, Mainpuri now lies on the Northern Zonal railway with headquarters at New Delhi.
Bridges and Ferries
Bridges--There are a number of bridges and culverts on the railway lines and roads in the district, besides ten ferries under the Zila Parishad .
It is mentioned in the jatakas, that in past, the roads were not dangerous for travelling and in the Ashokan edicts there were rest-houses and wells on the high roads . The Mauriyas had a separate department to look after roads and transport and provided a number of amenities to travelers. Sher Shah Suri and the Mughal emperors, particularly Jahangir, took great interest in reducing the hardships of travel by planting trees, building of serais and wells along the sides of main highways.
Due to the construction of big serais on the old imperial road in the district , certain places have developed as commercial centres. There were serais at Nabiganj, Kuraoli, Sirsaganj, Bewar Bhongaon, Sarai Latif, Mainpuri and Shikohabad . A few are now used as rest-houses but some others have been converted into such institutions as hospitals schools
The town of Mainpuri is centrally located having road links with all the adjoining district of Farrukhabad ,Etawah, Agra, and Etah and other districts of the State such as Mathura, Lucknow and Kanpur. It possesses amenities like dharmaslas, rest-houses , post and telegraph offices, telephones and hospitals and a hospital , besides, of course, a police-station.
The inspection houses , rest-houses and dak bungalows in the district are maintained by different departments of the government and are chiefly for the use of their own their own officers but officers of other departments, members of the public and tourists are also accommodated in them on payment , if accommodation can be spared .
A few hotels at Mainpuri and Shikohabad provide lodging and boarding.
There are dharmasalas at Shikohabad ,
Kishni and certain other places also in
. They are privately managed and the
charge is a nominal rent for the accommodation
; the visitor has to make his
own arrangements for boarding . Lists of inspection houses,dharmasalas etc; are given at the
end of the chapter in Statements A and
B respectively .
POST, TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE
Post-office --After the suppression of the struggle for the freedom of the country launched in 1857, the work of carrying and distributing the mails was entrusted to the police and that purpose offices were opened at the tahsils and the principal thanas. The system proved unsatisfactory, and in 1865, a new scheme was introduced, where by the
police were relieved of postal duties and the distribution of the district dak started with a regular staff.The whole district was divided into a number of circles, with a post -office in each, the police stations generally on account of administrative convenience, and the mails were carried by runners.There were imperial dak lines from Mainpuri to the branch lines and district dak runners were employed to deliver the dispatches.With the introduction of the railways in the district the dak began to carried by trains, the runners being employed in the interior of the district . In 1870-71 about 1,18,747 deliveries were made by the department and amount of Rs 14,139 was earned . Further improvements were made with a view to ensure the regular delivery of letters in the villages and the system remained in force till 1876-77 the administration of postal services was taken over by the Imperial Government . The district dak was not, however, altogether replaced, only important offices were taken over by the Imperial Government . There were 9 imperial post-offices functioning at Mainpuri , Bewar,Bhongaon, Karhal Kuraoli, Mustafabad ,Sirsaganj, Shikohabad and Jasrana. The district dak offices numbered 13 and were located at Azamabad
Araun,Ekah, Barnahal, Ghiror, Kurara Buzurg, Kishni , Kusmara, Ponchha, Nasirpur, Akharpur Aunchha, Pharha and Sultanganj. In 1907 , the district dak services were abolished and the post-offices were placed under the management of the Government of India.
The development and extension of roads and the consequent in crease in vehicular traffic and growth of population have led to the opening of more and more post-offices. In 1908 , there were 10 sub offices and 22 branch offices in addition to head office in the district . In 1974-75, they totaled 207; about 9 villages being served by a post-office . The number of post-offices per 100 sq.km. in rural areas of the district is shown in the following table :
|Tahsil||No. of post-offices per 100 sq. km.|
The Post Telegraph, a Central Government establishment , is presided over by a director -general, under are the postmasters generals of the various States. The district is in the administrative jurisdiction of post-offices,Etawah, postal division with headquarters at Etawah. He works under the adminstrative control of the postmaster general of Uttar Pradesh with heaquarters at Lucknow .
STATEMENT - A
List of Inspection Houses Reference Page No. 130
|Mainpuri||P.W.D. Inspection house||Public Works Department|
|Ditto||Zila Parishad inspection house||Zila Parishad|
|Ditto||Hydel inspection house||State electricity board|
|Ditto||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Dunnahar||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Ghiror||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Aurangbad||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Sarai Latif||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Gangari||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Brijhia||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Kurra||Canal inspection house||Irrigation Department|
|Karhal||Dak Bungalow||Revenue Department|
|Darapur Rasim||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Belon||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Semrai||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Sewa||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Ong||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Saman||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Dhandhos||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Ram Nagar||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Barauli||Inspection house||Irrigation (Canal ) Department|
|Nabiganj||Inspection house||Public Works Department|
|Kusmara||Inspection house||Zila parishad|
LIST OF DHARMSALAS
|Village/town/mohalla||Name of the Dharmshalas|
|Mainpuri||Kr. Lal Singh Man Singh's Dharmsala|
|Mainpuri||Adhati Singh Dharmsala|
|Kuraoli||Lala Bilas Rai Dharmsala|