Mainpuri

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[GAZETTEER MAIN PAGE] [CHAPTER-1] [CHAPTER-2] [CHAPTER-3] [CHAPTER-4] [CHAPTER-5] [CHAPTER-6] [CHAPTER-7] [CHAPTER-8] [CHAPTER-9]

 [CHAPTER-10] [CHAPTER-11] [CHAPTER-12] [CHAPTER-13] [CHAPTER-14] [CHAPTER-15] [CHAPTER-16] [CHAPTER-17] [CHAPTER-18] [CHAPTER-19]

Chapter-15


EDUCATION AND CULTURE

    In ancient time the area included in the present district of Mainpuri formed part of the south Panchala kingdom.

    Education in those days began at home, followed invariably, for students coming from the upper strata of society, by their admission into some ashram a. Regular studentships, in ashram began  with the initiation ceremony called the upanayana. The pupil was allowed to pursue studies of his  choice accompanied by special teaching in the Vedas and the traditional branches of learning such as itihasa-purana (history and legend), vyakarna (grammar) , philology, chandshastra (prosody).  arthashastra (political economy) ganita (mathematics), jyotish (astronomy and astrology), dharmashastra (law and discipline), shastravidya (statecraft and military science ) and Ayurveda (the science of longevity).

     In ancient times education was imparted  for the sake of learning and spiritual advancement and not for providing a means to earn a livelihood. It was arranged with the best of care, free of cost and was not controlled by the state. One of the important features of the system was to  create an intimate relationship  between the teacher and the taught which was expected to inculcate in the latter the attitudes of obedience, service, austerity and purity of conduct.

     In course of time paths alas (schools) emerged , as elsewhere. in this region also. A majority of them were   attached to temples in which, in addition to the subjects taught ordinarily (Sanskrit and grammar, the regional languages, astrology), mathematics, etc. preparation for priesthood became an important feature for those desirous of taking up that profession.

      It is difficult, however, to determine  fully the impact of Muslims on the educational system in this region but it may be presumed that they established their own maktabs (schools) mostly attached to the mosques. In those days paths alas and maktabs were almost always privately owned and run, receiving no regular financial aid from the government except occasional gifts of land, cattle or money.

     At the time of the advent of the British there were some elementary schools in which reading. writing and a little arithmetic were taught. These schools were in addition to indigenous religions institutions. The artisans gave their children mainly vocational education required for professional skill such as carpentry, smithy and tailoring. Schooling of girls was not in vogue but they were generally given training in domestic works lied cooking, house keeping and embroidery, at  home by elderly ladies of the family  who also familiarized them with the tenets of their faith and religious legends (Puranas), The first attempt for imparting education was  made by government in 1850  when tahsil (primary school established at the headquarters of a tahsil, and indigenous school were established in the district, on receiving a report on the condition of indigenous schools in 1848 , when there were 152 schools attended by 1,149 pupils, There were only 79 towns and villages provided with schools, and 1,380  without them. The general feeling was described as being `unfavorable to literary pursuits even of the most humble and practical character'. Later on a zila or district school was opened in 1867 . It has been raised to the status of an intermediate college. There was previously only one Anglo-vernacular school in the district . It  was run  by the American  Presbyterian Mission and at present it has risen to the status of an  Intermediate college. With the passage of time, education spread in the district in a marked fashion, and in 1875 , there were 32 schools in the district attended by 6,872 students, Of these 145 were in varous schools with 1,443 students, In 1909  the number of government and aided school rose to 167 with 6,937 boys and 621 girls are students. Of these six were secondary schools with 1,080 boys and one girl, Beside these there were several private indigenous schools throughout the district in which religious instruction either in Sanskrit or in Arabic was given and in some of them the Kaithi   script, the multiplication table and rudimentary arithmetic was also taught.

                                                       GROWTH  OF  LITERACY
               
     In 1881  it was found that 37 males and 8 females in a thousand were literate, In 1891  these figures  had risen n to  38 and 14 respectively and in 1901 to 42 and 18 respectively. Thereafter, there has been a slow but steady rise in the number of literate person, both male and female. Achievement in this field between 1951 to 1971 depicted below :

Year Percent of Literacy in
Rural Urban
Males Females Males Females
1951 13.6 1.5 40.1 17.6
1961 27.9 6.9 50.7 27.1
1971 31.9 10.7 54.1 35.5

    In  1961 , the  district occupied the 19th place in literacy among the  districts  of the State. The following statement gives an insight into the extent of the extent of the expansion of literacy and education in the district.

Educational Standard Person Males Females
Urban
Literate without educational level 19,885 12,246 7,639
Primary or junior Basic 4,535 3,907 628
Matriculation or higher secondary 8,229 5,959 2,270
Technical diploma not equal to degree 1,155 1,155    -
University degree or  post-graduate degree other than technical degree 1,034 936 98
Technical degree or diploma equal to degree or post graduate degree:      
Engineering 20 20    -
Medicine 41 41    -
Agriculture 3 3    -
Veterinary and dairying 1 1    -
Rural
Literate without education level 1,37,359, 1,09,155 28,204
Primary or junior Basic 52,645 46,424 6,221
Matriculation and above 8,228 7,980 268

     In 1971 , the percentage of general literacy rose to 24.24 and the percentages of literacy for males and females were 33.74  and 12.83 respectively.

                                                    GENERAL  EDUCATION

     Education now start generally with the  pre-junior Basic class or  nursery level and  goes up to the university stage. There are tow nursery schools in the district.

Pre-junior Basic Stage :-
     Pre-junior Basic education, imparted to children up to six years of age, is of recent origin. The following statement gives certain particulars about  institutions imparting such education :

Name and Location Management Date of establishment No. of Students Income Expenditure
Saraswati Shishu Mandir,Shikohabad Private          - 226 4,158 1,711
Nagar Palika Bal Mandir, Shikohabad Nagar  Palika 1968 314 52,066 52,066


Junior and Senior Basic Stage :-
     Education at the junior and senior Basic stages is based on the Wardha scheme of education initiated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1937 , which was adopted by the State Government with certain modifications, It comprises the juniors Basic stage from class 1 to 5, and the senior Basic stage from class 1 to 8, Mahatma Gandhi held that education  ought to draw out the best in the pupil in body, mind and spirit, It implied that free and compulsory education for a term of eight years be provided by the State, that the mother-tongue be the  medium of instruction, that the process of education centre  around some useful handicraft enabling the child to channclize his creative ability the moment his training is begun, and that, every  school be self-supporting.

   In order to  ensure academic and administrative efficiency Basic education  has been nationalized through the Basic Shiksha Adhiniyam since July 25, 1972 . The  management  of Basic schools has accordingly been transferred from the local bodies to the  board of Basic education. Control at the district level is vested in the Zila Shiksha Samiti and at the village level in the Gaon Shiksha Samiti. A district Basic education  officer and at additional Basic education officer (women) are posted in the district  to look after Basic education.

     To enforce the attendance of boys and girl of the school-going ages at appropriate schools, Their enrolment was made compulsory in 1927  in the urban areas of the district.    

     The statement I at the end of the chapter shows number of junior Basic, senior Basic and higher secondary institution and students in them from 1965-66 to 1974-75.

Secondary Education :-
     Secondary education covers the courses of study after the senior Basic stage up to class XII. With the establishment of the board of high school and intermediate education, U.P. in 1921 the high school and intermediate examinations began to be held at the end of class X and class XII respectively. To encourage female education, the state  Government has made girls education  free up to high school standard, since January 1,1965 The details of higher secondary schools functioning in the district in 1974-75 are given in Statement II at the end of the chapter.

Re-orientation Scheme :-
     The re-orientation scheme aims at introducing agriculture as a central craft in the school. In 1974-75 , there were 64 schools teaching agriculture under this scheme in the district. They had 64  extension teachers. The following statement gives certain details regarding various types of schools
teaching agriculture in 1974-75 :

Type of schools Name of schools Total acreage
Senior Basic 41 324.34
Higher secondary and intermediate 233 106.12

       EDUCATION OF SCHEDULED CAST  AND OTHER BACKWARD CLASSES

     To encourage education amongst the Scheduled Castes, incentives like free education, stipends, scholarships and financial assistance for purchase of books and stationery have been provided by the State. From class I to X they receive free education and poor and deserving students get scholarships. In the intermediate classes they are entitled to scholarships besides free education subject to certain conditions. Those who fail for the first time in a class get free education after fulfilling certain conditions. Poor and deserving students  of the other Backward Classes also receive scholarships.

    The following statement shows the number of students of the Scheduled castes in 1974-75 in various classes.

Standard

Boys Girls Total
Junior Basic 17,059 6,338 23,897
Senior Basic 2,495 3,126 5,621
Higher secondary (up to class X) 2,161 168 2,329
Higher secondary (up to class XII) 785 265 1,050

Higher Education :-

     In 1974-75 , there were 6 degree colleges in the district out of which one was for girls. The following statement gives certain details about them .
All institutions are affiliated to the Agra University.

Name and Location Year of establishment No.of students No. of teachers Management
A.K.Degree College, Shikohabad 1916 340 22 Private
Narain Degree College,Shikohabad 1956 1,637 69 Ditto
Paliwal Degree College, Shikohabad 1969-70 170 14 Ditto
D.M.Municipal Girls' Degree College, Shikohabad 1974-75 160 7 Municipal Board
Shre, Chitra Gupta Post Graduate College ,Mainpuri 1973-74 799 15 Private
National Degree College Bhongaon       -- 835 24 Ditto

                            PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATIONS

     Before the mechanization of industries there was hardly any scope for opening institutions of technical and  professional education. In the age of handicrafts, skill in the production of goods was acquired through apprenticeship, and manual dexterity was passed on from generation to generation. But with the advent of machine technology and its application to spheres of production. propagation of professional and technical education became imperative.

     An industrial training institute was started on November 1, 1962  by the State directorate of training and employment. It imparts training in trades like those of fitter, carpenter, blacksmith, turner, electrician, wireman and stenographer, In 1974  the number of trainees was 256. About on third of the trainees are entitled to get stipends.

    To meet the growing demand for trained teachers for Basic schools a number of training  institutes are being  run in the district by the education department. Their position in 1974 is  indicated below :

Name and location Degree/certificate awarded No. of students No. of teachers Duration of training
Government Normal School, Mainpuri B.T.C. 147 15 1 Year
Government Girls' Normal School Mainpuri B.T.C. 60 5 1 Year
Government Normal School , Kuraoli B.T.C. 100 11 1 Year

                                        ORIENTAL   EDUCATION
          Sanskrit :- In 1973-74 , there were 5 Sanskrit paths alas (schools)  in the  in the district  which imparted education in subjects like Sanskrit literature, vyakarna (grammar), ganita (mathematics), darshan (philosophy), etc. and were affiliated to the Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi. The following table some particulars about these pathshalas :

Name and location Year of establishment No. of students No. of teachers Course of studies
Rangeshwar Vidyalaya Gurukul, Shikohabad 1933 37 4 Uchatar Madhyma
Shri, Sangved Vidyalaya, Gurukul, Nauner 1942 175 10 Acharya
Shri, Onkareshwar Sanskrit Vidyasaya Ashram Akitarndham, Usmidha 1943 56 4 Uchatar Madhyma
Ekvasa Nand Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, Mainpuri 1944 130 11 Acharya
Arya Gurukul Sansdrit Mahavidyalaya, Sirsaganj 1953 107 15 Acharya

    
        The Lal Singh Man Singh Industrial School, Mainpuri established in 1918, imparts vocational training to the blind in arts like music and crafts like weaving of the seats of chairs with cane strips.

                                       PHYSICAL  EDUCATION
     Physical training is given to boys and girls in all educational institutions in the district. There are 21 units of the national cadet corps in the district of which 18 are in the urban and 3 in the rural areas of the district. Scouts' training sponsored by the Bharat Scouts and Guides Association is compulsorily given in all the senior Basic and higher secondary schools and scouts and guides' camps and rallies are organized every year. The national fitness corps, created by the Central Government provides training in 15 schools colleges of the district and for that purpose 16
instructors have been appointed in the district.
        
                        LIBRARIES  AND  READING - ROOMS

     Libraries :- In 1974-75 there were 8 libraries in the district. The following statement gives an idea of their status :

Name and Location

Number of

Management

Books Magazines Periodicals
Dr. Ambedlar Library, Nagla Bariyar 350 2 3 Private
Nehru Library , Lalpur Sagaoni 437 2 2 Ditto
Buddha Ambedkar Library, Bhaomroly 330 1 4 Ditto
Mathur Chaturvedi Library, Mainpuri 8,998 4 10 Ditto
Nav Jeevan Library , Mainpuri 3,560 6 12 Ditto
Dr. Ambedkar Library , Mainpuri 2,430 5 9 Ditto
Anand Library, Shikohabad 2,385 6 3 Ditto
Mahavir Kigambar Jain Library, Sirsaganj 2,429 4 5 Ditto

    Reading - rooms :- In  1974-75, the extension education department of the State Government was running 21 reading - rooms in the rural areas of the district.

                                                                Statement - I

Year Junior Basic Education Senior Basic Education Higher Secondary Education
No. of Schools

Students

No. of Schools Students No. of Schools Students
Boys Girl Boys Girl Boys Girl
1965-66 1,089 99,950 49,500 162 16,052 3,500 32 20,500 2,990
1966-67 988 1,02,660 57,059 167 17,892 3,977 39 25,584 3,371
1967-68 1,096 99,369 52,392 196 31,441 6,749 40 24,623 3,121
1968-69 1,098 1,06,298 54,757 206 20,749 3,165 42 29,419 4,547
1969-70 1,107 1,00,968 48,960 219 30,504 4,340 39 30,706 5,129
1970-71 1,222 1,01,878 49,792 236 20,095 5,262 52 35,449 5,431
1971-72 1,222 1,04,309 52,709 236 27,860 6,185 62 37,996 5,213
1972-73 1,148 1,17,917 62,037 225 34,673 6,528 61 24,522 2,852
1973-74 1,198 1,19,965 63,549 230 18,704 3,130 64 41,881 11,788
1974-75 1,219 1,22,491 74,884 243 21,076 4,458 69 44,831 7,641

                                                                Statement - II

Institution and Location Year of Establi shment Name of Founder Year of Upgrading No. of Teachers No. of. Students Income      (In Rs.) Expenditure
Christian Inter College , Mainpuri 1843 American  Presbyeterian Mission H.S. 1883

Inter 1952

53 1,688 2,43,004 2,39,107
Govt. Inter College, Mainpuri 1867 Govt. H.S.1907

Inter 1951

31 527 1,84,167 1,84,264
Govt. Girls Inter College, Mainpuri 1900 Govt. H.S. 1942

Inter 152

46 97 48,808 2,55,010
Kr. Ram Chandra Singh Lal Singh Girls Inter College Mainpuri 1931 Ram Chandra Singh H.S. 1964

Inter1966

27 913 83,777 86,712
Jain Inter College Karhal 1945 Levenchootion Trust H.S. 1947

Inter 1955

37 1,172 1,77,285 1,75,128
D.A.V. Inter College Mainpuri 1945 Arya Samaj H.S. 1948

Inter 1952

32 914 1,41,733 1,56,323
National Inter College Bhongaon 1945 Educational Trust H.S. 1952

Inter 1955

69 1,939 3,16,224 3,16,692
Chitra Gupta Inter College, Mainpuri 1950 Brijeshwar Sahai H.S.1951

Inter 1954

39 1,118 1,36,379 1,62,080
Amar Shaheed Inter College Bewar 1950 Kanhi Singh Inter 1954 46 1,542 2,08,964 2,08,964
D.A.V. Inter College , Jyoti 1951 Raja Ram Vaid H.S. 1953

Inter 1957

24 688 92,877 85,714
Dev Nagari Inter College, Kuraoli 1952 Saheb Singh H.S. 1957

Inter 1963

57 1,507 2,12,281 2,31,883
Saraswati Inter College , Ajeetganj 1952 Raghuber Dayal H.S. 1964

Inter 1972

21 501 52,046 52,046
Azad Inter College Karhal 1954 Triveni Sahai H.S. 1955

Inter 1961

41 1,290 1,88,496 1,78,291
Indrajeet Shiksha Sadan Inter College, Jot 1954 Patrakhan Lal H.S. 1957

Inter 1967

25 689 93,977 93,642
Ekrasanand Inter College, Mainpuri 1955  

Swami Dhajanand

H.S. 1957

Inter 1965

25 492 65,952 78,151
Sanatan Dharm Inter College , Hasanpur 1956 Chiraunji Lal  H.S. 1964

Inter 1972

20 449 75,510 76,632
D.N. Saraswati Inter College, Jajumai 1957 Arya Samaj H.S. 1964

Inter 1972

21 628 63,833 59,665
Adarsh Inter College , Bewar 1958 Hira Lal Dixit H.S. 1960

Inter 1968

37 190 1,47,801 1,40,914
Major Jogvaf Singh Inter College, Jasmai 1958 Jograj Singh H.S. 1964

Inter 1971

20 513 48,632 51,139
Janta Inter College , Nauner 1962 Vijay Bahadur H.S. 1965

Inter 1969

37 1,104 1,04,563 1,06,998
Daneshwar Raj Kumar Inter  College, Naviganj 1962 Saraswati Prasad H.S. 1966

Inter 1971

17 452 38,288 38,256
Bhartiya Inter College , Kuraoli 1964 Malkhan Singh H.S. 1966

Inter 1972

30 755 65,109 79,407
Nehru Inter College, Sawan 1964 Shiv Baksh Singh H.S. 1965

Inter 1987

45 1,329 1,59,957 1,57,755
A.K. Inter College , Muzaffarpur Tiliyani 1965 Chakkarpan Singh H.S. 1971

Inter 1972

18 400 23,944 49,658
Ganga Sahai Girls H.S. , Mainpuri 1930 Ganga Sahai J.H.S. 1969 

 

18 601 32,659 35,497
D.A.V. H.S. School, Alipur 1952 Raghunandan Prasak H.S.1953  17 572 58,162 66,581
Ghatam Deo H.S. Bhanpur, Patara 1952 Brijeshwar Sahai J.H.S.  1973 10 225 11,869 16,882
H.H.S.,Husainpur 1953 Bachan Singh J.H.S.  1973 9 215 14,988 17,759
Adarsh Janta H,S. School Rampur 1956 Dulera Lal H.S. 1965  15 319 36,212 40,053
Z.P. H.S.School Jagir - Zila Parishad H.S.  1972 11 215 35,762 26,203
Maha Kavi Deo H.S. School Kusmara 1961 Lakshman Das H.S.  1962 15 577 42,187 40,562
Bhartiya Vidya Mandir Bewar 1961 Vijay Singh H.S.  1968 16 547 52,355 53,876
Mahaveer H.S. S. Johari Nagar 1962 Jiya Lal J.H.S.  1970 13 259 31,119 24,995
D.A.V. H.S. Scool Ghiror 1963 Reghubir Singh H.S.  1966 17 490 46,169 42,465
Nehru H.S. S. Balampur 1964 Tejvir Dubey J.H.S.  1972 10 220 19,694 19,694
A.K.Vidyalaya Barnahal 1964 - J.H.S.  1973 11 283 15,535 16,296
Bhakt Batsal H.S.S.Bichhawan 1965 Rustam Singh H.S.  1972 10 293 24,381 26,555
Krasak Vidyapeeth H.S.S.Murlinagar 1965 Subedar Singh H.S.  1966 20 705 62,550 47,686
Madan H.S.S.Bhongoan 1966 Madan Mohan H.S.  1972 17 218 33,972 34,026
D. A. V. H. S. S.Kusmara 1966 R.N. Agnihotri J.H.S.  1972 8 213 11,685 11,685
Z.P.H.S. Nawatera - Zila Parishad J.H.S.  1972 7 220 31,625 30,393
Nehru Smarak H.S. S Sauj 1966 Samsher Bahadur J.H.S.  1970 9 260 26,018 15,582
Shishu Mandir Girls H.S. S. Mainpuri - R.R. Purang J.H.S.  19 466 13,938 28,141
Keshaw Lal Mathur Chaturvedi H.S.S. Narinpur 1966 Kharag Jit Singh J.H.S.  1973 8 196 7,986 11,501
Nehru H.S.S. Khatramau 1967 Lal Singh J.H.S.  1973 10 316 23,687 23,154
Kisan H.S. School Kharana 1968 - J.H.S.  1974 10 283 14,395 15,514
Janta Vidyalaya Karahal 1969 Suraj Singh J.H.S.  1973 8 188 7,482 7,481
Kasturba Gandhi Girls H.S. S. Bhongaon 1969 T. A. Committee J.H.S.  1971 6 94 12,586 11,660
Shiv Adarsh Vidyalaya , Pendat 1969 Balbir Singh J.H.S.  1972 10 262 22,974 48,973
Shiksha Sadan H. S.S. Kuchela 1970 Lallo Singh J.H.S.  1974 10 283 14,395 15,514