DISTRICT MAINPURI, UTTAR PRADESH
Mainpuri district is one of the districts in Agra division of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Mainpuri town is the district headquarters. It consists of five tehsils, namely Mainpuri, Bhongaon, Karhal, Kishni and Ghiror.
Demographics
According to the 2011 census Mainpuri district has a population of 1,847,194. The district has a population density of 670 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,700/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.69%. Mainpuri has a sex ratio of 876 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 78.26%.
Agriculture : Principal Crops of Mainpuri
Mainpuri is a major trade centre for agricultural products in the state. Paddy, wheat, potato, groundnut, mustard and garlic are the major crop of the district.
Kharif : The main kharif cereals in the district in order of the area they cover are, maize, bajra and rice. Among the kharif pulses are urd, moong and moth are the main crops though they occupy very small areas. The kharif crops are sown in Asadha-Sravana and reaped in Ashwin-Kartika after the cessation of the rains, usually well before the preparation of the fields.
Rabi: In the rabi the lead is taken by wheat, which is the most valuable of all the food-grains. It is sown alone as well as mixed with barley, gram, pea or mustard. Of the pulses only arhar and masur are important. Rabi sowings begin in October-November i.e. Kartika-Agrahayana and are harvested in April-May (Chaitra-Vaisakha-Jyaistha).
Zaid : It is of very little importance and consists of melons, kakri, khira, vegetables, spices, tobacco, legumes and a number of low grade cereals.
Non-food Crops: Sugarcane, oil-seeds like ground-nut, mustard, sesame, rapeseed and linseed, vegetables and fruits, sunn-hemp, jute cotton and tobacco are the non-food crops in the district.
Places of interest
Fort of Maharaja Tej Singh Chauhan is situated at old Mainpuri at Devi Road.
The Raja's palace, The Garhi, is the major point of tourist interest in the town. Modern places of attraction are Phoolbagh and Lohia Park. Phoolbagh is situated at Jail Chauraha while Lohia Park is situated at District Collectorate. Both the parks have green lawn and fountains.
Mainpuri is also known for Sarus Crane (Grus antigone). This elegant bird, called krouncha in India, is revered as a symbol of marital fidelity and is celebrated in myth and legend. There are estimated to be 8,000-10,000 sarus cranes in India. Two-thirds of its population resides in Karhal village anjani.
Industry
Cotton ginning, oilseed milling, and lamp and glass manufacture constitute the prominent industries. The town is also renowned for its tobacco and wooden sculptures.
Transportation
Mainpuri is well connected with the other part of country by roads and trains.
Roadways : Frequent buses is available from the main roadways bus stand to all major cities However to move to internal part of mainpuri district few more bus stand are there mainly karhal bus stand, mota stand, gopinath bus stand which attract good traffic.
Railways : The whole line was opened by the Ist of January 1906. It runs through the centre of the district, with station at Shikohabad, where it joins the main line, Araon, Kosma, Mainpuri, Bhongaon and Mota, after which it crosses the Kali Nadi into Farrukhbad district, connecting at Farrukhabad with the kanpur line. 
Kalindi Exp is the main train which connect Mainpuri to Delhi and Kanpur Apart from it few local trains also connect mainpuri to farrukhabad and tundla.
Geography
Boundaries and Area : Mainpuri is a District of Agra Division, Uttar Pradesh, India, is bounded on the North by Etah District, on the East by District Farrukkhabad and Kannauj, on the South by District Etawah and on West by the District Firozabad and Etah. It lies between North Latitude 260 53' to 270 31' and East Logitude 780 27' to 790 26'. The area of the district is 2745 sq. k.m. and population is 13,11,492 in 1991.
Topography : The district generally presents the appearance of an extensive level plain broken only by the sand ridges on the western border, the rolling sand hills and undulations of the Kali and Isan rivers, and the ravines along the Yamuna to the south-west. The Kali Nadi forms the boundary of this plain on the north and north-east and the Yamuna encloses it on the south-west. Both these rivers flow towards the south-east, and between them. The general slope of the country from north-west to south-east.Taking the district from north to south.
Soil : Generally speaking the soils of the district are typical of those found elsewhere in the Indo-Gangtic plain, and are classified on two principles according as the distinctions recognised are natural or artificial. Both are well understood and commonly employed by the cultivator. Of the natural divisions Bhur is the name of the soil containing a large proportion of sand, while Matyar is the name of that containing a large proportion of clay, and between these two exterms is a loamy soil called Domat having clay and sand more evenly divided as its name implies. A lighter soil than Domat is known as Pilia, coming between Domal and Bhur.The barren soil known as Usher found at the heads and partly down the courses of the smaller rivers such as Ahnaiya and Puraha, the Sengar and Arind and the numerous minor esteems, and appears to be a clay deposit too compact to permit of cultivation in places too impregnated with Reh and other deleterious minerals substances to permit growth of even grass.
Rivers:  Kali Nadi : The Kali Nadi forms the north-eastern boundary of the district separating it from Etah and Farukkhabad. It is a narrow stream, but perennial, and even during the spring and summar month is only fordable at certain places there is a bridge of 545 feet spans on the Farukkhabad road. Isan : Next to the Kali comes the Isan, which is here a considerable stream, fordable only in a few places in the rains. But during the reminder of the year the volume of running water is small, and in years of unusual drought there is no apparent stream, but the pools that remains are fed by the springs. During the first part of its course and to within four miles of its junction with Kali Nadi about three miles north-west of Mainpuri, it runs through a loam and usar country, has a comparatively shallow bed, and often overflows the neighbouring lands in time of flood.
The Arind or Rind : The Arind (or Rind as it is called further down its course ) is a very insignificant stream in this district , which it enters to the north of pargana Mustafabad , between the Etawah and Kanpur branches of the Ganges Canal , and treverses is an exceedingly sinuous course from the extreme north-west to the extreme south-east corner. A straight line from its point of entry to its point of exit is almost the longest which could be drawn on the district map. It present a striking contrast to the Kali and Isan.
Lakes : Mainpuri abounds in swamps and marshes, particularly in its central portion but few of them are of sufficient size or permanence to deserve the name of lake . Mention will only be made here of the more considerable ones, and for the others reference should be made to the accounts of parganas. In all 36,870 acres are recorded in the revenue record as under water. Even the largest, as they are seldom supplied from springs. There is also a long narrow lake of considerable size to the south-west of Mainpuri city, between it and the Kanpur branch of the Ganges canal, which drains by two cuts towards the Isan.
Drainage : The general slope of the country, is from north-west south east, and this is the direction in which the rivers run and which is therefore followed in the main by the drainage. There are however, numerous inequalities of surface caused by the greater or less elevation of the river beds and by the sand bridges, and the general disposition of the drainage differs some what indifferent portions of the district. In the center tract, which lies highest, the main drainage arteries are the Isan and the Arind. Pargana Karhal has been seriously affected by the canal. The Kali and Isan and their catchment basics all belong to the Ganges system, and all the other rivers to that of the yamuna.
Waste Land : The barren land consists for the most part of usar plains.
Forests : Total area covered in the district is 2154 hectare. A considerable area of the barren land is covered with dark jungle. A great deal of waste land covered with the coarse grass known locally as ganra (gandhar) or sinkh . The ganra is used for thatching and for making ropes and mats. The babul grows in large clumps on the user plains and is, indeed, the only tree which flourishes on them. Its cultivation has for some time past been encouraged by the increase of moisture due to the canals and the great demand for wood both for fuel and carpentry. Its timber is hard and close-grained and is much used for building purposes, fuel and charcoal.
History
Mainpuri anciently formed part of the great kingdom of Kanauj, and after the fall of that famous state it was divided into a number of petty principalities, of which Rapri and Bhongaon were the chief. In 1194 Rapri was made the seat of a Moslem governor. Mainpuri fell to the Moguls on Baber's invasion in 1526, and, although temporarily wrested from them by the short-lived Afghan dynasty of Shere Shah, was again occupied by them on the reinstatement of Humayun after the victory of Panipat. Like the rest of the lower Doab, Mainpuri passed, towards the end of the 18th century, into the power of the Mahrattas, and finally became a portion of the province of Oudh. When this part of the country was ceded to the British, in 1801, Mainpuri town became the headquarters of the extensive district of Etawah, which was in 1856 reduced by the formation of Etah and Mainpuri into separate collectorates. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in.1857 the regiment stationed at Mainpuri revolted and attacked the town, which was successfully defended by the few Europeans of the station for a week, until the arrival of the Jhansi mutineers made it necessary to abandon the district.
Notable Temples
The city has some very old and popular Hindu temples. These include :
1. Sheetla Devi Temple, where every year during March/April, a Rural Exhibition-cum-Trade Fair is held for 20 days.
2. Bhimsen Mandir is an ancient Shiv temple and "Falahari Ashram" situated on Jyoti-Devi Road has very rare Statue of Goddess Durga with 18 Arms.
3. Chandeshwar Mandir situated on chandeshwar road, the road begins from maharaja Tej Singh chuarah, near the bridge of river Isan, and terminates on Ashram road.
4. On Devi road are twin Shiv Temples of Kale Mahadev and Shweat Mahadev.
5. Hanuman Temple situated on old Tehsil Road is visited by thousands on Tuesdays and Saturdays.